Loading and running work of roadway construction


During the tunneling process, rock loading and transporting is the most cumbersome and time-consuming process. In general, this process accounts for about the cycle time of the excavation , * ' *" & . Therefore, continuous research and improvement of loading and transshipment work to improve labor efficiency, speed up excavation, improve working conditions and obtain better economic benefits , all have important significance.
A loading equipment and its selection There are many types and models of loading equipment used in roadway excavation, its characteristics and applicable conditions are listed.
When selecting a rock loader, first consider the roadway specifications and the requirements for the speed and mechanization of the roadway. Generally, the bucket loading and unloading rock loader and the shovel rock loader are used. If the degree of mechanization is required, the tunneling speed is fast, and the roadway section is allowed, the crab claw or crab claw loader should be applied as much as possible.
At present, the most widely used in domestic mine roadway excavation is the electric or pneumatic bucket front loading and unloading rock loader, whose specifications and performance are different. In addition, the productivity of the crab claw and crab claw loader is high, and the record of two months of super-million in the country is obtained by using such a loader, and its specifications and performance.

B shunting method and transfer equipment
In the shipping work, reasonable selection of shunting methods and reloading equipment to shorten the shunting time is an important measure to speed up the tunneling speed.
For the transportation of excavation work, most of them are
U -shaped and square-side unloading type (small number of bottom-loading type) mines with a volume of 0.5~1m3 . When manually adjusting and transporting, the volume of the car should not exceed 0.75m3 ; Tonnage (such as 1.5~3t , maximum 7t ) wired or DC motor vehicles.
C. Increasing the productivity of the bucket-type rock loader At present, the middle-loading rock in the mine roadway excavation in China still mainly adopts the bucket rear unloading rock loader. To sum up, there are two measures to improve their productivity. One is to improve the efficiency of loading machines and shorten the loading time. The second is to improve the efficiency of shunting or reloading and shorten the time of shunting and reloading.
There are four main factors affecting the production efficiency of such rock loaders:
a shunting transport equipment and work organization mainly includes the scheduling of heavy and empty vehicles, train scheduling, mine car (or reloading transport equipment) volume, track quality and connection method, roadway width and so on.
The productivity of the rock loader depends mainly on its time utilization, that is, the exchange time of empty and heavy vehicles. According to the measurement of some single-track single-track roadway, the shunting time is 3~10
times of the pure rock loading time . In this case, it is necessary to adopt shunting equipment according to local conditions, and use large-capacity mine cars or reloading equipment to ensure the quality of the track and prevent vehicle drop accidents.
b Rock quality and properties
Mainly refers to the influence of rock mass, specific gravity, humidity and hardness on the rock loading productivity. According to the "#$$ type of rock loader, the limestone rock of different degrees is tested. The diameter of the rock block is kept at %$ & '$$ ( within its rock-loading productivity is high, the specific values ​​are shown in the table.
There are many factors that affect the dragging resistance of the bucket, such as the depth of insertion of the bucket, the shape and width of the bucket, the increase in the degree of rock mass, the specific gravity and the humidity, and the rock-filling productivity is also reduced.
The above factors and other factors cause changes in the dragging resistance of the bucket, which directly affects the fullness of the bucket. The values ​​listed indicate that the specific gravity, blockiness and weight of the rock have a significant impact on the bucket fullness factor.
c rock loading working conditions and work organization factors mainly refer to blasting efficiency (rock pile height, throwing distance, bulk rate), pressure (or voltage) size and stability, operation mode (chiseling, parallel or sequential operation) and driver Factors such as proficiency. If the height of the rock pile is moderate (1~1.5m ), the throwing distance is about 10m , the block rate is controlled below 5 % , and the capacity of the rock loader will be fully utilized. The level of air pressure has a great influence on the rock loading productivity. When the rock mass is 40~100mm and the rock pile thickness is 0.5~1.4m , the pneumatic rock loader is tested several times. Although the numerical values ​​fluctuate greatly in the table, there may be other factors that interfere with it, which may not accurately reflect the effect of air pressure, but the general trend is still correct, which basically reflects that the increase of air pressure will inevitably lead to an increase in rock loading productivity. .
The parallel operation of rock loading and rock drilling can shorten the proportion of the rock filling process to the total cycle time of the excavation; the proficiency of the rock loading driver schedules the speed of the rock loader, avoids undue accidents, and handles the accident speed and The effect, etc., has a great direct impact on the improvement of rock loading productivity.

d   The structural factors of the rock loader mainly refer to the weight of the machine, the shape of the bucket and the way of scooping. It can be seen from the above that the corresponding measures can be taken in order to effectively improve the rock loading productivity.

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