The three major elements of B2B e-commerce

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Nowadays, e-commerce is in the ascendant. Since the concept of e-commerce was put forward, e-commerce sites have sprung up like mushrooms. American AMAZON, domestic 8848 and other online retail, US eBay and other auction sites have achieved great success, we classify it as B2C e-commerce, but e-commerce is not limited to this, but the growth potential is inter-enterprise (B2B) e-commerce, some people also call it the third generation of e-commerce. According to market research firm Gartner Group, the global e-commerce market for business-to-business in 1999 was $145 billion, and is expected to reach $7.29 trillion in 2004. B2B e-commerce is an electronic operation that integrates information exchange and transaction behavior between buyers, sellers and intermediaries (such as financial institutions) serving them. It is a continuation of past business relationships and business activities. Business relationships are built on high trust and business contracts, and business-to-business transactions can maximize the potential benefits of e-commerce, through the concentration of supply, the automatic realization of procurement, and the efficiency of the distribution system. And it can be achieved. And with the widespread adoption of B2B e-commerce, the company's planning, production, sales and operation models, and even the basic survival of the entire industrial society will undergo fundamental changes. As a commercial trade tool, EDI, a commercial e-commerce prototype, prepares business documents such as orders, invoices, shippers, customs declarations, etc. into a data format that can be recognized and processed by computers according to uniform standards. . However, since the implementation of traditional EDI requires an in-depth understanding of the EDI concept and the huge cost, the traditional EDI is only applied well between large enterprises, large banks and large partners. The tremendous development of INTERNET makes B2B e-commerce widely available. BNET-based B2B e-commerce is obviously quite different from traditional EDI running on private networks or value-added networks. The main reason is to promote a small, partial, specific, and expensive business concept to an open, public, universal, and inexpensive system. In order to adapt to this transformation, B2B e-commerce must have a certain foundation on the Internet. Its main performances are: standardization of information; user identity verification; network transaction integration technology. Information Standardization (Formatting) The standardization of information primarily addresses the intelligibility of information, including the understanding of information by people and machines. Moreover, more important is the machine's identification of information and automatic processing. The unambiguity of information is a basic requirement for information identification and processing. Traditional EDI has emerged to solve the problem of information standardization. However, due to the disadvantages of the difficulty and use of traditional EDI, the promotion and use of traditional EDI has been greatly hindered. The emergence and rapid development of INTERNET poses a huge challenge to this traditional technology, and the emergence of non-EDI information exchange standards and protocols based on INTERNET has become inevitable. After decades of development of traditional EDI, EDI information standards are still not unified, and there is no global standard. There are two major standards systems in the world: one is popular in Europe, Asia is UN/EDIFACT by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE); the other is popular in North America by the American National Standards Council (ANSI) ANSIX1. 2 standard. In addition, each industry also has its own industry standards, such as: CIDX (chemical), VICX (department), TDCC (transportation). In addition, all EDI standards cannot be searched, located, or displayed on the Web via WEB, and these are the most basic requirements for small transactions between modern INTERNET small businesses and some non-fixed business partners. Although INTERENT has many shortcomings, the low cost of running has great appeal to various companies. The first task is to establish a widely accepted standard format for information exchange. Such a standard should make B2B e-commerce websites easy to use by various customers, and can be easily integrated with the in-house product invoicing channels. As an extension of HTML and a subset of SGML, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is extensible, self-descriptive, and self-compatibility. It is a powerful tool for information standardization. It can be expected that XML-based standards will become the mainstream of future information standards. There are two non-profit organizations working on establishing B2B e-commerce standards: CommerceNet and RosettaNet. CommerceNet is an association of banks, communications companies, value-added network providers, ISPs, online services, software and services companies, and end users. It has more than 600 companies and organizations. Its purpose is to promote the development of B2B e-commerce. Its affiliated OBI (OpenBuyingontheInternet) organization is responsible for developing an enterprise-level e-commerce standard that is suitable for product wholesale. This is an open, scalable, independent and adaptable standard. OBI1 is now available. 1 standard. RosettaNet is made up of a number of IT giants, including 60 companies such as Cisco Systems, Compaq, GE, HP, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Netscape, NEC, and Oracle. The goal is to develop an e-commerce standard for IT products to conduct enterprise-level transactions on the network in real time via WEB technology. Through the eConert program, a test standard has been formed: PIP 1.1 (Parter Interface Process). It defines a standard data exchange format between business partners by providing an XML (ExtensibleMarkupLanguage) language template. Other companies and organizations are also working on their own standards and specifications, including: Ariba's cXML, IBM's tpaML, CommerceOne's xCBL2.0, Microsoft's BizTalk framework, and UN's UN/CEFACT team and OASIS. ebXML plan, etc. Another difficulty in authentication B2B e-commerce is user identity authentication, including mutual authentication between trading partners and certification by financial intermediaries. The primary goal of authentication is to confirm the true identity of the sender of the message and the integrity of the authentication information, ie, the confirmation message has not been tampered with during delivery and storage. Traditional EDI uses a communication network that is a value-added network or a private network. It can use more complex private encryption and authentication technologies, so data access control, data archiving, data recovery, network usage, client authentication, information transmission, and security. High reliability. But these are difficult to get effective guarantees when using INTERNET as an information and marketing channel. Due to the openness of the INTERNET, both parties involved in the transaction urgently need to confirm the identity of the other party. The most typical authentication method on the Internet is digital signature technology, which uses asymmetric key encryption technology to verify the authenticity of information transmitted on the Internet. Both parties to the transaction and the intermediary have obtained their own digital certificates from a third party called Certificate Authority (CA), which is a trusted third party, including their own digital signature, which can verify their own network. Identity. In the process of e-commerce transactions, digital certificates can be used to identify each other between business partners, enterprises and financial institutions. The PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) technology used to ensure the security and reliability of information transmission. At the same time, some legislation is passed to ensure the legal validity of digital certificates. At present, some banking institutions and authorized units have begun to gradually play the role of such trusted third parties, issuing digital certificates, providing digital signatures to trading partners and financial institutions, and so on. For example, ABaecom, a subsidiary of the American Banking Association, and Identrus, a global trust organization, are engaged in the business of issuing digital signatures to enterprises. Most of the e-commerce standards and specifications mentioned in the previous section provide good support for digital signature-based identity authentication mechanisms. The integrated processing of online transactions, although according to the classification of e-commerce interaction, we divide e-commerce into e-commerce within the enterprise, e-commerce between enterprises and business between enterprises and consumers, but it does not mean that we can electronic within the enterprise. E-commerce between business and business is separated. On the contrary, B2B e-commerce requires the integration of e-commerce inside and outside the enterprise. Enterprise intranets are used to automate business operations and workflows, increase access to critical systems and critical data, share experiences, work together to solve customer problems, and maintain inter-organizational relationships, involving all aspects of production and sales. External refers to the connection between the two parties involved in the transaction and the financial institutions that serve them. Only an integrated e-commerce network for production and sales can play the true advantage of e-commerce. At present, there are many companies and products that provide WEB technology-based B2B e-commerce solutions for various enterprises. Even some companies that originally engaged in traditional EDI solutions have gradually turned to INTERNET. Through this solution, enterprises can establish an XML-based data exchange mechanism with partners, and realize the automatic identification and processing of information based on the digital signature-based authentication mechanism, which can flatten the supply chain of enterprises and reduce the operating costs of enterprises. Achieve accurate and efficient business operations. And many organizations, including some banks, have begun to build some B2B e-commerce portals, which are used to connect producers, distributors, retailers and customers, and provide them with various services such as trading, auction, online payment and financial management. Some of these portals are open to any business, and are closed between fixed partners such as BizProLink.com, VerticalNet.com, ProNetLink.com, and Harbinger.net. Their appearance has greatly accelerated the development of B2B e-commerce. B2B e-commerce is still a brand new field in China. But we must recognize that e-commerce, whether it is B2C or B2B, is a new way of business activities with a certain technical content, so the key is not in technology, but in business, technology is only a means. Therefore, in the process of implementing e-commerce, business must be a priority factor.

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